Creation → 1st November, 1966
Capital → Chandigarh
Boundaries → International : Pakistan, National: Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan
State Animal → Black Buck (Antilope Cervicopra)
State Bird → Goshawk (Melievax poliotens)
State Tree → Shisham (Dalbergia Sissoo)
State Language → Punjabi
Secretariat → Chandigarh
High Court → Punjab and Haryana High Court, Chandigarh
First Governor → Chandulal, Madhav Lal Trivedi
First C.M → Dr. Gopi Chand Bhargava
First Chief Justice of High Court → Justice Ram Lal
First Speaker of Vidhan Sabha → Kapur Singh
Present C.M → Captain Amrinder Singh
Present Governor → V.P. Singh Badnore
Present Speaker of Vidhan Sabha → Rana KP Singh
Geographical Area → 50,362 km2
Latitude → 29030’N to 320320 N
Longitude → 730550 E to 760500 E
Forest Area → 3055 km2
Altitude → 180-300 meters
Average Rainfall → 435.6 mm
Divisions → 5 (Newly created on 31st Dec., 2010: Ropar Division)(Jalandhar, Ropar, Ferozpur, Patiala, Faridkot)
Districts → 22
Sub-Divisions/Tehsils → 81 (Newly added in 2011: Guru Har Sahai) (Ferozepur District) and Dharamkot (Moga district)
State Legislature → Unicameral
Lok Sabha Constituencies → 13
Rajya Sabha Constituencies → 7
Vidhan Sabha Constituencies → 117
Largest City (population Wise) → Ludhiana
Demography (CENSUS 2011)
Total Population → 277.04 Lakh
Male Population → 146.35 Lakh
Female Population → 130.69 Lakh
Rural Population → 173.2 Lakh
Percentage of Rural to Total Population → 62.51%
Urban Population → 103.87 Lakh
Percentage of Urban to Total Population → 37.49%
Density → 550 per sq.km
Sex Ratio → 895
Literate and Educated Persons → 18988611
Literacy Rate → 75.84%
Male Literacy → 80.44%
Female Literacy → 70.73%
Scheduled Caste Population → 7028723
Percentage of S.C. to Total Population of Punjab → 31.94%
Punjab Constitutes 2.29% of India’s population.
Most Literate District → Hoshiarpur
Least Literate District → Mansa
Most Populated District → Ludhiana
Least Populated District → Barnala
Largest District (Area Wise) → Ludhiana
Smallest District (Area Wise) → SAS Nagar (Mohali)
Highest Sex Ratio → Hoshiarpur
Lowest Sex Ratio → Bathinda
District with Highest Population Density → Ludhiana
District with Lowest Population Density → Muktsar
Max. Decadal Growth of population → SAS Nagar (Mohali)
Min. Decadal Growth of population → SBS Nagar (Nawanshahr)
Max. Literacy (among males) → Hoshiarpur
Min. Literacy (among males) → Mansa
Max. Literacy (among females) → Hoshiarpur
Min. Literacy (among females) → Mansa
2 newly created Districts → Pathankot (carved out of Gurdaspur) and Fazilka (carved out of Ferozepur)
2012-13 (Provisional): 4.64%,
2013-14 (Quick): 5.73%
2014-15 (Advance): 5.32%
Gross State Domestic Product at Current Prices:
2012-13 (P): 285119 crores
2013-14 (Q): 317556 crores
2014-15 (A): 349826 crores
Gross State Domestic Product at Constant Prices (2004-05):
2012-13 (P): 164602 crores
2013-14 (Q): 174038 crores
2014-15 (A): 183298 crores
Per Capita Income at Current Prices:
2012-13 (P): 84512 crores
2013-14 (Q): 92350 crores
2014-15 (A): 99578 crores
Per Capita Income at Constant Prices:
2012-13 (R): 47854
2013-14 (P): 49529
2014-15 (Q): 51403
Population under Poverty Line:
Total: 8.26% (2011-12)
Average Monthly Per Capita Expenditure as per NSS 68th Round: Rural: 2345
Geography of Punjab
The region includes the three well recognized areas:
- Majha (Upper Bari Doab): spreads over 4 districts: Gurdaspur, Pathankot, Amritsar and Tarn Taran. It is bounded by River Ravi in the west and River Beas in the east and Satluj in the south.
- Doaba (Bist Jalandhar Doab): is a triangular area between River Beas in the north-west, River Satluj in the south. It covers 4 districts: Kapurthala, Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur (western parts) and Nawanshahr.
- Malwa Plains: The region lies between river Satluj in the north and river Ghaggar in the south. The region spreads over 14 districts: Ferozepur, Faridkot, Fazilka, Bathinda, Barnala, Sangrur, Mansa, Patiala, Mohali, Moga, Muktsar, Ludhiana, Rupnagar and Fatehgarh Sahib.
Ancient Names of the River
River Satluj borders 9 districts of Punjab: Ropar, Nawashahr, Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Tarn Taran, Ludhiana, Moga, Ferozepur and Fazilka
River Ravi borders 3 districts of Punjab,Amritsar, Pathankot and Gurdaspur
River Beas borders 6 districts of Punjab, Gurdaspur, Pathankot, Amritsar, Tarn-Taran, Hoshiarpur and Kapurthala.
District wise Forest Area Intensity:
1st Highest: Hoshiarpur (34%)
2nd Highest: Ropar (24%)
3rd Highest: Nawanshahr(15%)
4th Highest: Gurdaspur (10%)
Wildlife Sanctuaries in Punjab:
- 1. Harike – e Pattan Wildlife Sanctuary: is situated in Tarn Taran district
- 2. Takhni Rehmapur Sanctuary: is situated in Hoshiarpur district
- 3. Abohar Wildlife Sanctuary: is situated in Abohar, Fazilka district which is famous for Black Buck
- 4. Bir Motibagh Sanctuary: situated in Patiala district on Patiala-Dakala road.
- 5. Bir Gurdialpura Sanctuary: is situated in Patiala district on Patiala-Samana-Shatrana road.
- 6. Bir Bhunerheri Sanctuary: is situated in Patiala district on Patiala-Devigarh road.
- 7. Bir Mehas Wildlife Santuary: is situated in Nabha Tehsil of Patiala district on Nabha-Malerkotla road.
- 8. Bir Dosanjh Wildlife sanctuary: is situated in Nabha tehsil of Patiala district on Nabha-Jorepul road.
- 9. Bir Bhadson Wildlife Sanctuary: is situated in district Patiala on Nabha-Bhadson-Gobindgarh road.
10. Bir Aishwan Wildlife Sanctuary: is situated in district Sangrur on Sangrur-Sohian road.
11. Jhajjar-Bachauli Wildlife Sanctuary: is situated in the forest area of district Rupnagar, falls in Villages of Jhajjar, Bachauli and Lamheri.
12. Kathlapur Kushlian Wildlife Sanctuary: is situated in tehsil Pathankot of district Gurdaspur on Amritsar-Jammu highway.
Zoological Parks in Punjab:
- 1. Mahendra Chaudhary Zoological Park, or Chatt Bir Zoo: is a zoological park located near Zirakpur, that houses hundreds of different mammals, birds and reptiles. One of the major attractions of Chatt Bir Zoo near Chandigarh is the lion safari.
- Tiger Safari: in Ludhiana district
- Deer Park, Neelon: in Ludhiana district
- Deer Park Bir Moti Bagh: in Patiala district
- 5. Deer Park Bir Talab: in Bathinda district
Shri Akal Takht
Shri Damdama Sahib (also called Guru-ki-Kashi)
Talwandi Sabo, Bathinda, Punjab
Shri Keshgarh Sahib
Anandpur Sahib, Punjab
Shri Patna Sahib
Shri Hazoor Sahib
Nanded Sahib, Maharashtra
Social Reform Movements in Punjab
Nirankari movement: The Nirankari movement was originated in Rawalpandi, in the northwest region of Punjab, during the latter years of the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The sect was founded by Baba Dyal Singh.
Namdhari Movement: The Namdhari movement was founded by Balak Singh who did not believe in any religious ritual other than the repetition of God’s name. The Namdhari maintain their own gurdwaras (houses of worship) and practice strict vegetarianism.
Radhasoami movement: Shiv Dayal Singh, founder of the movement, also called “Soamiji Maharaj” by devotees and admirers used to insist that anyone who chose to follow him must give up non-vegetarian food, abstain from alcohol and intoxicants, lead a high moral life and engage in over two hours of shabd yoga (sound current yoga) meditation per day.
Singh Sabha Movement: The first modern movement among the Sikhs was the Singh Sabha. Accepting the challenge of Christans missionaries and under the impact of Western education, a few public-spirited Sikhs assembled at Amritsar and formed a society known as Sri Guru Singh Sabha (Amritsar Singh Sabha).
In the Struggle for Freedom
Komagat Maru: The Komagata Maru (also called Kamagata) was a Japanese steam liner, chartered in 1914 by Gurdit Singh, an affluent Sikh businessman, to carry 376 Indians, all Punjabis to Canada. The Ship embarked from Hong Kong before arriving in Canada.
Ghadar movement: The Ghadar movement was a movement of patriotic, progressive, democratic and enlightened Indians living abroad, working for the emanicipation of India from the clutches of British colonialism and the birth of a new India based on national and social emancipation. A weekly paper called ‘Ghadar’ (The Rebellion) was started with Lala Hardyal as Chief Editor.
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre: Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, involved the killing of hundreds of unarmed, defenseless Indians by a senior British military officer, which took place on 13th April, 1919 in the heart of Amritsar, the holiest city of the Sikhs, on a day sacred to them as the birth anniversary of the Khalsa (Baisakhi day).
The massacre took place in the Jallianwala Bagh, a public garden in Amritsar and shooting was ordered by Brigadier-General Dyer.
Shaheed Udham Singh: Shaheed Udham Singh is known for his assassination of Sir Michael O’Dwyer in March 1940 what has been described as a revenge of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
Gurudwara Reform Movement: Gurudwara Reform Movement marked the struggle of the Sikhs from 1920-25 to wrest control of their places of worship from the mahants (priests) into whose hands they had passed during the 18th century when the Sikhs were driven away from their homes to seek safety in remote hills and deserts.
SGPC: Sikh Gurudwaras Act, 1925 passed by the provincial legislative assembly in July 1925 and implemented with effect from 1 November 1925 created a “Board”, renamed Shiromani Gurudwara Parbandhak Committee soon thereafter to provide for the better administration of certain Sikh Gurudwaras and for inquiries into matters and settlement of disputes connected therewith.
Guru Ka Bagh Morcha: Guru Ka Bagh morcha in Ghukkevali village, Tehsil Ajnala, District Amritsar is an account of a major campaign, just one of the many struggles by the Sikhs in the early 1920’s to seek justice, in regaining control of their own houses of worship.
Jaito Morcha: Jaito Morcha is the name given to the Akali agitation that took place in Febrauary 1924 for the restoration of the throne of Maharaja Ripudaman Singh of Nabha, a Sikh princely state in the Punjab.
Punjab Riyasti Praja Mandal: Punjab Riyasti Praja Mandal was an organization of the people of the princely states of Punjab which was established in 1928 at Mansa to work for securing to them civil liberties and political rights.
Shaheed Bhagat Singh: Shaheed Bhagat Singh was born into a Sikh family which had earlier been involved in revolutionary activities against the British Raj, at village called ‘Khatkar Kalan’ in present SBS Nagar (Nawanshehr) district.
Shaheed Sukhdev: Shaheed Sukhdev was a famous Indian revolutionary who played a major role in the India’s struggle for Independence. Sukhdev was a member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) and organized revolutionary cells in Punjab and other areas of North India. He along with other renowned revolutionaries started the ‘Naujawan Bharat Sabha’ at Lahore.
Shaheed Rajguru: Shaheed Rajguru was a revolutionist from Maharashtra. He was a colleague of Bhagat Singh and Sukhdev and took part in the murder of a British police officer, J.P. Saunders, at Lahore in 1928.
WETLANDS OF PUNJAB:
1.Harike Wetland also known as “Hari-ke-Pattan”, with the Harike Lake (fresh water lake) in the deeper part of it, is the largest wetland in northern India in the Tarn Taran Sahib district of Punjab and is situated at the confluence of the Beas and Satluj. The wetland was declared as a Wild Life Sanctuary in 1999 with an extended area of 86 sq.km. It was decalared a Ramsar site by the International Body of Wetlands under the UNDP in 1990.
2.Ropar Wetland, also named Ropar Lake (fresh water lake), is a man-made freshwater riverine and lacustrine wetland. This important ecological zone is located in the Shivalik foothills of the Lower Himalayas and was created in 1952 on the Sutlej River. Considering the wetland's diverse and rich biodiversity, Ramsar Convention has included Ropar Wetland (listed as Ropar Lake) as one of the Ramsar sites.
3.Kanjli Wetland is a man made Wetland, which subsumes the Kanjli Lake (fresh water lake), located in the Kapurthala district of Punjab state in India, was created in 1870. It was recognized internationally by the Ramsar Convention in 2002.
FORMATION OF THE STATE
Punjab Boundary Commission 1966 (Reorganization of Punjab):
Recommendation of Sikh Commission, Punjab Reorganization Act was enacted and accordingly Punjab was trifurcated on 1st Nov., 1966, leading to the formation of Haryana & Himachal Pradesh.
Administrative Divisions of Punjab:
1.Faridkot Division, 2.Ferozepur Division
3.Jalandhar Division, 4.Patiala Division
SOCIAL WELFARE SCHEMES OF PB. GOVT.
1.Bebe Nanki Ladli Kalyan Scheme: 20000 is provided at the birth of the girl child.
2.Mata Kaushalaya Kalyan Scheme: was launched by Punjab government in 2011 under which 1000 cash incentive is provided to all mothers who undergo institutional deliveries in Govt. hospitals.
3.Mai Bhago Vidya Scheme: was launched by Punjab Government, to provide free bicycle to all girl students studying in class 11th and 12th in all government schools.
4.Shagun Scheme: was launched by Punjab Government in 1997-98 for Scheduled caste and Christian girls. 15000 is provided on the marriage of scheduled and Christian girls who are above the age of 18. 20000 for rural areas and 27500 for urban areas.
5.Kanya Jagriti Jyoti Scheme: in 1996-97 in Punjab State, to uplift the social status of the girls and to reduce the school drop-out rate. The girl child born on or after 26.01.96 in the families living below poverty line or whose annual income is below 20000 and are adopting two children family norm are covered under the scheme.
6.Mai Bhago Istri Shakti Scheme: Under the scheme individual or group of women would be provided loans at 8-10% per annum by Agricultural Societies.
7.Balri Rakshak Yojana: launched in Punjab in 2007, with the objectives of encouraging the birth of girls to balance the skewed sex-ratio in the state, reducing the Infant Mortality rate (IMR) & Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) by reducing the number of pregnancies and to further bring down Total Fertility Rate.
8.Nanhi Chaan: An initiative of the Ranbaxy group and later adopted by Mrs. Harsimrat Kaur Badal, MP from Bathinda, was launched on 27th Aug. 2008 for protection of girl child & our fragile environment.
9.Free Education to Girls: Primary girl students and free education to girls of 9th to 12th class.
Prominent Industries in Punjab
Nestle - Moga, Glaxo Smithkline- Nabha,
Dell-Mohali, Hawkins, Sonalika Tractors, RIL-Hoshiarpur, JCT-Phagwara, Punjab Tractors -Mohali, Mahavir Spinning Mills, Hero Cycles -Ludhiana, Infosys, Wipro,Tech Mahindra -Chandigarh, Ranbaxy-Mohali, National Fertilizers Ltd.-Nangal & Bathinda, HMEL Refinery - Bathinda
MUSEUMS IN PUNJAB
1.Maharaja Ranjit Singh Museum, Amritsar
2.Sanghol Museum, Fatehgarh Sahib
3.Anglo Sikh War Memorial, Ferozepur
4.Govt. Museum, Hoshiarpur
5.Rural Museum, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana
6.Museum of Armoury & Chandeliers, Qila Mubarak, Patiala
7.Art Gallery at Shish Mahal, Patiala
8.Sports Museum, National Institute of Sports, Patiala
9.Guru Teg Bahadur Museum, Anandpur Sahib
FORTS IN PUNJAB
1. Gobindgarh Fort, Amritsar
2. Bathinda Fort
3. Qila Mubark, Faridkot Fort
4. Qila Mubark, Patiala
5. Anandpur Sahib Fort, Rupnagar
6. Phillaur Fort, Ludhiana
7. Shahpur Kandi Fort, Pathankot
PALACES IN PUNJAB
1. Summer Palace of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Amritsar
2. Moti Palace, Patiala
3. The Shish Mahal, Patiala
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN PUNJAB
1. Evidence of Harappan Culture, Ropar
2. Dholbaha, Hoshiarpur
3. Sanghol, Fatehgarh Sahib